Class 12-Physics

Class 12-Physics

Course Language : English

Total Duration : 80 Hours

Course Price : ₹ 8500

Class 12 Physics

NCERT Class 12 Physics Syllabus

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Class X11 Physics


Unit I: Electrostatics (22 Periods)

Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields

Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.

Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric fleld.

Electric flux, statement of Gauss's theorem and  its  applications  to find  field due  to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due  to a point charge, a  dipole and  system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy  of  a   system  of  two  point  charges  and   of  electric  dipole  in  an electrostatic field.

Conductors  and   insulators,  free   charges  and   bound    charges  inside   a conductor. Dielectrics and  electric polarisation, capacitors and  capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and  in parallel, capacitance of a  parallel plate capacitor with and  without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.


Unit II: Current Electricity (20 Periods)

Chapter–3: Current Electricity

Electric current,  flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility   and    their   relation   with   electric   current;    Ohm's  law,   electrical resistance, V-I  characteristics (linear and  non-linear), electrical energy and power,  electrical resistivity and  conductivity, Carbon resistors, colour code  for carbon resistors; series and  parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance

The internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff's laws and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.

Potentiometer - principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.


Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism (22 Periods)

Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment. Biot - Savart law and its application to current  carrying circular loop. 

Ampere's law and  its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids (only qualitative treatment), force on  a  moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields, Cyclotron.

Force   on  a  current-carrying  conductor  in  a  uniform  magnetic  field,  force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere, torque experienced by a current  loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current  sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter

Current  loop as a magnetic dipole and  its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole  moment  of  a  revolving  electron,  magnetic  field  intensity  due   to  a magnetic dipole  (bar  magnet) along  its  axis and  perpendicular  to  its  axis, torque  on  a  magnetic dipole (bar  magnet) in a  uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements.

Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths, permanent magnets.


Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents (20 Periods)

Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday's laws, induced EMF and current; Lenz's Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual induction.

Chapter–7: Alternating Current

Alternating  currents,  peak   and   RMS  value  of  alternating  current/voltage; reactance and  impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, power factor, wattless current. AC generator and transformer.


Unit V: Electromagnetic waves (04 Periods)

Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves

Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only). Electromagnetic spectrum(radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about  their uses.


Unit VI: Optics (27 Periods)

Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Ray  Optics: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction of light, total internal reflection and  its applications, optical fibers, refraction at spherical  surfaces,  lenses,  thin  lens  formula,  lensmaker's  formula, magnification,  power   of  a   lens,  combination  of  thin  lenses  in  contact, refraction of light through a prism. Scattering of light - blue colour of sky and  reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and  sunset.

Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.


Chapter–10: Wave Optics

Wave  optics: Wave  front and  Huygen's principle, reflection and  refraction of plane  wave  at a plane surface  using  wave  fronts.  Proof  of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle. Interference, Young's double slit experiment and  expression for fringe width,  coherent sources and  sustained interference of light, diffraction due  to a single slit, width of central maximum, resolving  power   of  microscope  and   astronomical  telescope,  polarisation, plane  polarised  light,  Brewster's  law,  uses  of  plane  polarised  light  and Polaroids.


Unit VII:   Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter (08 Periods)

Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and  Lenard's observations; Einstein's photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.

Matter  waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation, Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).


Unit VIII: Atoms and Nuclei (15 Periods)

Chapter–12: Atoms

Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom;  Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

Chapter–13: Nuclei

Composition   and   size   of  nucleus,   Radioactivity,   alpha,   beta   and   gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy  relation,   mass  defect;   binding   energy  per   nucleon   and   its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.


Unit IX: Electronic Devices (12 Periods)

Chapter–14: Semiconductor  Electronics:  Materials,  Devices and Simple Circuits

Energy  bands in conductors, semiconductors and  insulators (qualitative ideas only). Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and  reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; Special purpose p-n  junction  diodes:  LED, photodiode,  solar  cell  and  Zener diode and  their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator.


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